Are smartphones the new human-machine interface?
In this new age of working, plant managers and engineers alike are switching to smart phones to see how the various machinery on their factory floor are operating. But does this mean that the traditional human machine interface (HMI) is about to vanish?
Many industrial automation manufacturers, such as ABB, Haas, Rockwell and Siemens, have started introducing smartphone connectivity to their machinery. Linking an assembly robot or a CNC machine with your smartphone offers a range of benefits, such as remote control and status alerts. As more and more machines are being connected in this way, one would be forgiven for thinking that smartphones are the new HMI.
Tough and ubiquitous
Personally, I believe HMIs are here to stay and are even going to become more widely used. If you think about it, almost everything has a HMI — from a coffee machine to the most sophisticated assembly line. Using a HMI is beautifully straightforward. Unlike with a smartphone, you don’t need to take your gloves off, pop a pair of specs on, wait for the app to load or navigate a complicated menu.
It’s not just their simplicity, but also their ruggedness that make HMIs such an invaluable tool. Most liquid crystal displays (LCD) on HMIs can be operated with your gloves on. Moreover, the glass screens of phones etch easily, for instance when they come into contact with metal fragments or chemicals. The screens of traditional HMIs are thus uniquely suited to a manufacturing environment.
HMIs are not without their problems of course. When the screen begins to flicker, becomes less responsive, or the device needs several attempts to power up, then the user experience is severely impacted.
The good news is that many of these issues can be easily fixed. Firstly, a flickering screen is a sign that the HMI backlight needs replacing. Second, even though HMIs are designed for tough environments, LCD screens are actually very sensitive. Only use your fingers to operate it and if the touchscreen becomes unresponsive, have it replaced.
If your HMI needs several reboots before it starts, then this could either be due to a software issue or a problem with the internal power supply. The manufacturer, or a good automation parts supplier, should be able to help you fix this. It’s important that operators recognise this problem early and seek expert assistance before the HMI fails completely.
One of the major advantages of a HMI over a smartphone is that nearly all its parts can be replaced individually. At the same time, some functionalities that are used in smartphones have now been introduced to HMIs. Operator controls can now be animated and graphics enlarged or rotated to provide for better visibility of processes.
The HMI of the future
HMIs are evolving all the time. The long-stroke keys have almost entirely disappeared in favour of panel-based solutions that drastically reduce the cost of installation, because only one wire is required instead of one physical connection for each individual button.
With the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), machinery and robots rely increasingly on complex real-time algorithms that require internet connection to crunch all the data involved. So, HMIs are now only one of several ways of managing the data input and output of a machine.
Introducing smartphone-based steering of machines sounds like the next step in this process. Smartphones are indeed very useful for receiving alerts, for instance on downtime. Such alerts are managed with an app-based solution and usually necessitate linking your machines to the internet. However, relying completely on smartphones risks overlooking the central position that HMIs hold in manufacturing.
The rise of tablets
If you’re still not sold on sticking with a traditional HMI, tablets offer a way to combine the advantages of both smartphones and HMIs in one single device. Tablets can be toughened up to withstand the wear and tear of an industrial environment. Also, a special software can be uploaded that has the same access, control and visibility as the existing HMIs.
Yet the fact that tablets are decoupled from the machine offers the benefit of standardising controls, software and hardware replacements across the entire factory floor. Different types of machines no longer need to have their own HMI attached to it. Moreover, tablets can be fitted with improved software security and can be used to specify exactly who is authorised to access which machine.
It’s clear that the future of HMIs is across multiple types of device. Newer machines will allow for tablet-based steering and smartphone connectivity, whereas older equipment still relies on traditional HMIs. Therefore, it is important that the legacy technology is managed effectively alongside the latest innovations.
Neil Ballinger is head of EMEA at automation parts supplier EU Automation.
New FTC Chair Lina Khan to Break Big Tech's Hold on Economy
Formerly a legal activist and academic, Lina Khan is now in control of one of the most powerful jobs in the country. The U.S. Federal Trade Commission, or FTC, ensures that companies don’t artificially raise prices on consumers and that big companies abide by fair trade practices—and Khan has just been confirmed as the commission’s chair.
Right now, the FTC is highly focused on breaking up Big Tech, and Khan is by far one of the most vocal critics of Silicon Valley. Many tech leaders, in fact, see Khan as a threat to the companies they’ve worked decades to build. Ron Knox, a senior researcher at the Institute for Local Self-Reliance, summed it up. ‘Lina understands the vast potential of the FTC to really reshape the economy, de-concentrate markets, and democratise major parts of the economy’.
What Are Khan’s Views on Big Tech?
Good question. Many lawmakers have compared Big Tech to the railroads that crossed the United States in the 19th century—companies so large and powerful that the government eventually passed the nation’s first anti-trust laws. But Khan’s view is a little more complex. In it, she argues that the laws that applied in the past are virtually inapplicable today.
In a 2017 Yale Law Journal article titled ‘Amazon’s Anti-Trust Paradox’, Khan concluded that federal commissions should look at more than just price. In the 1900s, huge railroads could increase prices as much as they wished; today, Google and Facebook are essentially free for their users. But that doesn’t mean they’re engaging in free and fair competition. Despite the price, these companies still undercut their competitors.
For example, consider some of Amazon’s alleged business operations:
- Pricing at a significant loss. Unfair competition.
- Amassing vast stores of market data. Unfair advantage.
- Buying up smaller, potentially competitive companies. Unfair trade practices.
Just like the railroad trusts all those years ago, several Democrats have suggested that Facebook and Google be split up. Instagram, say goodbye to Facebook; YouTube, say goodbye to Google. ‘These firms essentially provide infrastructure to the digital age’, Khan told the BBC. What remains to be seen is what she’ll do about it.
The First Steps…
Currently, the FTC is suing Facebook for its social network monopoly and will soon evaluate Amazon as well. Biden is fully intent on breaking apart the firms that have ruled much of the American public for so long—and he has bipartisan support. So it’s no surprise that tech organisations are riled up.
‘Antitrust populism is inevitably going to become the governmental policy stance’, said Aurelien Portuese, the Director of Anti-Trust and Innovation Policy at the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation. ‘ [It will] cause lasting self-inflicted damage that benefits foreign, less meritorious rivals’.
But in 2021, tech companies may be on the losing side of public sentiment. Both Republicans and Democrats in the Senate have taken a highly aggressive anti-trust approach, and even intense trade and technology competition with China can’t stop lawmakers from investigating Big Tech. The majority, in fact, may agree with Khan’s sentiment: ‘Even when services are good for consumers, they can hurt a whole set of other interests—be it workers, business formation, or democracy at large’.