May 17, 2020

Blockchain: Business ready or a slow burner for 2018?

Blockchain
Cryptocurrency
Bitcoin
Erik Johnsson
9 min
Blockchain
Most people associate blockchain with cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin.It is the technology that many are built on. However, blockchain is now being bil...

Most people associate blockchain with cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. It is the technology that many are built on. However, blockchain is now being billed as a technology that will improve visibility, productivity and security for business. In fact, some have gone as far as to say that its system for record-keeping, transparency and verification could replace the role of trust in our society. So, what is blockchain and why is it important for business?

The first step towards understanding blockchain for business is to put aside any thoughts of cryptocurrencies.

Invented to support Bitcoin, blockchain is a digital version of a classic ledger book. However, this new digital ledger has the capability to record and, most importantly secure, many different kinds of transactions. Blockchains can also hold rules about what kinds of transaction to accept and execute more rules in order to interact with other blockchains to form “smart contracts”. 

The most important and disruptive feature of blockchain is that it’s a distributed ledger—multiple parties have a copy of the entire ledger. That means many kinds of business transactions can be decentralized, eliminating the cost, complexity, and slowness of involving trusted intermediaries. Smart contracts provide new ways to automate complex, multi-party business transactions which reduce costs and increase the velocity of business. Blockchains are ideal for recording custody chains of goods like fine art to prevent forgeries. The same is true for commodities to ensure sustainability for farmed products or conflict-free sourcing of raw materials.

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A global realisation has emerged that blockchains can bring new efficiencies to commerce and profoundly change how the world conducts business and interacts with Governments. Major IT providers like IBM, Microsoft, and Infosys are collaborating with banks and other financial institutions in a race to develop commercial blockchain platforms. The advent of blockchain is fueling a huge number of startup companies focused on specific industries and consumer applications and Governments are considering how blockchain can make tax reporting easier while reducing fraud.

How blockchain works?

A blockchain is a ledger holding a list of transactions or events people want to track. What makes blockchains so appealing is that they are very secure and multiple parties can possess reliably synchronized copies. Blockchains are append-only data structures, which means that entries can only be added at the end of the list. Once added, entries are immutable and cannot be changed or deleted without corrupting the chain. Each entry in a blockchain is digitally signed by whomever creates the entry, and the entire blockchain is also digitally signed to make tampering easily detectable. 

Blockchains are a reliable and authoritative record of events, financial or otherwise. No single person or company controls access to the data because any participant can have their own copy. Transactions are guaranteed never to change and their source cannot be repudiated. A blockchain can consist of many replicas of the same data, which enables each party to have an up to date copy of the data. A new block appended to one replica is eventually copied to every other replica.

Along with financial transactions, blockchains can hold code which is triggered automatically when new blocks are added to the chain. This practice is called a smart contract, because these code blocks are typically used to enforce rules or execute actions dictated by legal contracts. For example, a rule to release payment when and only if all goods ordered have been signed as delivered, can be encoded into the blockchain rather than relying on a user to monitor the order and send payment. Smart contracts can also be used to propagate data from one blockchain to another (beyond any replicas) thus creating a business ecosystem automated and secured by a collection of blockchains.

Types of blockchain

Corroborating the accuracy of a blockchain without a central authority who holds responsibility (and also usually controls the single system of record) requires all replicas in the blockchain to formulate a consensus about which entries are valid or invalid. This is tricky to accomplish for widely distributed replicas and the consensus process can take a long time.  This is one reason why there are two kinds of blockchains—unpermissioned and permissioned

Unpermissioned blockchains (aka permissionless) have no owner per se, and entries can be created by anyone. Bitcoin used an unpermissioned blockchain because all participants have identical copies and every user can access the complete transaction history.  All replicas in an unpermissioned blockchain participate in the consensus process. Unpermissioned blockchains avoid censorship, where someone (in authority) decides which transactions to accept. 

Permissioned blockchains typically have one or more owners and the consensus process can (optionally) be carried out by a smaller set of trusted agents—like Governments or banks. Also, only authorized parties can validate transactions and access to transactions can be restricted to certain participants.  Permissioned blockchains are very amenable to businesses because the consensus process is much faster and it’s easier to control who has access to sensitive data.

How ready are businesses for blockchain?

Businesses today are becoming more interdependent not just for mission critical tasks, but for services or products that carry legal liability. For example, food providers who need proof that their suppliers are correctly processing ingredients. Maintenance and repair for critical machinery like airplanes and surgical equipment requires staff with provable certifications. Home mortgages are touched by a large number of entities who, still to this day, do much of the work on paper forms. 

When problems occur, for example, an E. coli breakout or a jet engine malfunction, it can take weeks for all parties to sort through their records to determine the root cause. Using a blockchain ledger provides a single, shared place where all constituents in a business chain record their actions. The record can be constantly checked by computers looking for problems —like the wrong part mistakenly installed during maintenance.

For manufacturers and distributors who ship across borders, simply delivering goods can generate dozens or hundreds of paper documents describing critical aspects of the process like routes taken, customs declarations, insurance riders, hazardous material documentation, sourcing documents, and certifications for carriers of special cargo. Digitizing and electronically transmitting these documents is a commonplace practice. Critical shortcomings still remain, mainly stemming from Government demands for transparency and disclosure along with increasing complexity in business itself.

Today, each company participating in a global logistics process likely keeps their own collection of the documents and records about a given shipment.  If any piece of documentation is amended or revoked by another party (or Government), it’s possible some participants won’t be notified and might wind up retaining outdated or even conflicting information. Some companies mitigate this problem by using a collaboration tool like Microsoft SharePoint as a centralized document repository.  But access to that repository is often managed by one controlling entity who might not always protect everyone else’s interests. Centralized repositories are also expensive to maintain, subject to outages, and cumbersome to audit.

Blockchain is a great advancement for an industry like global shipping because a reliable, shared ledger simplifies recordkeeping. For example, a manufacturer can write the bill of lading—a document issued by a carrier which details a shipment of merchandise and gives title of that shipment to a specified party—and contract terms to their copy of the blockchain. Those entries are automatically replicated to copies of the blockchain held by the freight and insurance carriers. The insurance company will write their certification of coverage back to the blockchain which triggers the carrier to schedule pickup and delivery. The carrier will copy the proof of delivery to the blockchain, which indicates to both the manufacturer and the insurance company that the customer has taken final possession.

A blockchain for overseeing a shipping operation improves efficiency for all parties involved. Because each party has a copy of the blockchain they can access locally, no one has to log in to anyone else’s system to enter data. And better yet, no one is relying on emails to keep paperwork in order. When an event occurs, all parties are notified automatically.  If a problem arise, everyone can review the same history which helps avoid liability issues. The security of a properly administered blockchain helps prevent entries created by unauthorized users or even authorized users from secretly altering data or repudiating a transaction.

Is your business blockchain-ready?

Despite being in the news for several years as the technology driving Bitcoin, blockchain for commercial use is still very new. Much of the commercial uptake is still in the proof of concept (or startup) stage.

There are four key areas to consider when deciding if your business is ready for blockchain in 2018.   

  1. Are the standards good enough for your industry? Blockchain works as an application programming interface (API), which means standards need to be developed before there is widespread adoption. There are multiple groups working on standards, including Hyperledger and the Etherium Alliance Framework.  However, Gartner expects the industry to stabilize in 2018 with 75 commercial blockchain platforms before consolidating to about five platforms in 2019 (source: “The Evolving Landscape of Blockchain Technology Platforms.”)
  2. Is the technology robust enough yet? While blockchain is conceptually simple, the underlying technology encompasses some difficult technology challenges. This is especially true for the distributed capabilities of blockchain which allow each party to have their own writeable copy of the same historical record. An entry written to one replica will eventually arrive at the other replicas, which then have to collaborate and decide if the new entry is valid. This can be harder than it sounds to facilitate.
  3. Is blockchain secure enough? Whilst in general, blockchain is considered a step forward for securing transactions, like most things in computing, security is not inherent. Blockchain uses public key encryption, hashing, and digital signatures, and other mechanisms which are well known, but not always administered correctly. Missteps in securing a blockchain, or simple bugs in the platforms, can cause serious disruption. For example, on November 6th, 2017, $280M in assets were accidentally (and temporarily) frozen in a blockchain managed by Parity Technologies due to a bug in the underlying platform. 
  4. Will I be compliant? As is often the case for new technologies, there are policy issues to be worked out.  For example, if a blockchain is immutable, how can the “right to be forgotten”, a mandatory requirement in the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), be applied?  There are also concerns that individuals making property transfers or declaring wills on a permissionless blockchain conflicts with how existing institutions manage public records. These anomalies still need to be ironed out.

For many, the answer will be ‘not yet’. Ultimately, there is no doubt that blockchain is a disruptive technology which has the potential to transform industries. However, despite recent momentum, it is a technology that isn’t (yet) particularly easy to use for many businesses. The platforms are still maturing and, like many other software platforms, they are subject to bugs and operational errors. The potential risks of being a blockchain pioneer are higher than other technology adoption waves because blockchains typically apply to monetary transactions as well as transactions carrying fiduciary responsibilities.

However, blockchain technology is likely to be intrinsically embedded within business processes in years to come. Those businesses that have technology with flexible deployment options, and those with modern enterprise resource planning (ERP) solutions in place, will be in a better position to take advantage of blockchain technology and adapt faster.

So, is blockchain right for your business? Assuming you agree that it is a technology that can improve visibility, productivity and security for businesses, then maybe the answer is yes. Any technology that provides components needed to achieve business growth is worth paying attention to, in my view. Is it right for your business in 2018? I’d have to say that the chances are unlikely. So blockchain, in some form appears to be in everyone’s future, even if it’s not just yet.

Erik Johnsson, Chief Architect, Epicor Software

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Jun 11, 2021

Ireland is key launchpad for US expansion into Europe

Interxion
datacentres
Cabling
Ireland
4 min
Thinking of expanding into Europe? Hear why Pfizer, Metlife, Google and VMware favour Ireland as the gateway to the region. 

The first transatlantic cable was laid between Newfoundland and Valentia Island in County Kerry, Ireland, in 1858. It was a flawed effort; the connection was poor, causing enough issues with efforts to send telegrams along it that major repair efforts were set underway immediately - efforts which ended up further damaging the cable line, severing the connection just three weeks later. 

This first step towards transatlantic subsea communication, shaky as it was, laid the foundations of more than a century and a half of information exchange across the ocean, between the East Coast of North America and Western Ireland.

It’s been 163 years since the completion of the first transatlantic cable, an event which cemented Ireland’s position as the landing stage for subsea connections between Europe and the Americas. That position has, in no small way, been a driving force behind the country’s modern role as a landing stage for US and Canadian firms looking to do business in Europe. 

Today, some of the largest firms in the world, like Pfizer, Janssen, Zurich, Metlife, Google and VmWare use Ireland for their European Headquarters. The combination of an English-speaking workforce (a boon made all the more important as Brexit makes the UK and the north of Ireland an increasingly complex environment that provides diminishing opportunities to access the rest of Europe), a cultural and regulatory landscape that welcomes foreign investment, and world-class connectivity makes the country an unparalleled choice for firms looking to establish a foothold in the EU. 

As a result, Ireland has become one of the world’s leading data centre hubs. 

Based on leading data centre firm Interxion’s Data Gravity Index, Dublin will be among the top five European cities that will contribute to Europe’s growth in data in the coming years, following London, Paris, Frankfurt and Amsterdam. The amount of data generated in Dublin itself is expected to grow alongside its economic expansion, with the Data Gravity Index also predicting that Dublin will outpace cities and data centre hubs like Mexico City, São Paulo, and even Shanghai, to be among the top 20 cities to experience annual data growth by 2024.

Ireland ranks 6th in the 2020 EU Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI), meaning that it is among the leading ranks of EU Member States in terms of the uptake and use of digital technologies. Likewise, the trend to locate data centres in Ireland serving overseas clients will continue to generate increasing amounts of international traffic

Managing the Dublin Data Boom 

According to Interxion, subsea connectivity will continue to play a massive role in helping both international and domestic organisations digitally transform themselves to meet the challenges of changing markets post pandemic.  

As the pace of global digital transformation - and the subsequent need for more connectivity - accelerates like never before, this rapidly developing world is driving urther demand for these cables as individuals and organisations become increasingly reliant on subsea cable’s exceptional data speed and capacity. 

According to experts at Interxion, this connectivity will be pivotal to Ireland’s continued success in attracting international companies in the technology, pharmaceutical and financial sectors. 

The subsea cable industry is a key contributor to the Irish economy across many sectors. The draft National Marine Planning Framework reported that subsea international networks make Ireland an attractive region for investment for the technology and digital sectors. Telegeography states that there are twelve existing subsea cables connecting Ireland to the US and UK, and a further four systems are under development. The Iish government’s statement on the Role of Data Centres in Ireland’s Enterprise Strategy identified Ireland as a location of choice for many different sectors reliant on digital and telecommunications capabilities, all of which in turn rely on subsea cable interconnectivity. 

Courtesy of Interxion: A Digital Realty Company
Courtesy of Interxion: A Digital Realty Company

Subsea cables are of strategic importance to Ireland’s future as a catalyst for economic and societal prosperity. Ireland can be the ideal location for your company’s expansion plans. To find out how, you can hear from leading experts throughout the data centre and digital infrastructure industries on June 15, 2021, as speakers from the IDA, Aqua Comms, GTT Communications, euNetworks and Interxion discuss subsea cabling, digital transformation, Data Gravity and the fate of Ireland’s digital economy. 

Key topics will include: 

  • Key facts about existing subsea infrastructure, 
  • Future plans, 
  • Challenges (including Marine Maintenance) and opportunities, 
  • Terrestrial networks (demand vs supply); 
  • Ireland's role as a gateway to Europe

The virtual panel (which is taking place between 10:30 PM - 11:30 PM JST on June 15, 2021) will conclude with a 20 minute Q&A. Mike Hollands, Senior Director of Market Development at Interxion, will moderate the event.   

  • Experts from Aqua Comms, GTT, euNetworks, the IDA, and Interxion will be taking part in the live event on June 15, 2021
    Experts from Aqua Comms, GTT, euNetworks, the IDA, and Interxion will be taking part in the live event on June 15, 2021

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